Quantification of Injection Pain by Using Rat Spinal Reflexes

Sponsored by: Terumo Pharmaceutical Solutions

Focused on:

  • Drug Delivery
  • Drug Formulation

Date: 23 October


Time: 3PM London/10AM New York

Pain and discomfort on injection, Electromyogram assessment of pain or discomfort in muscles, effect of formulation and device variables on discomfort

Parenteral drug delivery is one of the most widely available methods of drug delivery. However, needle-related procedures in parenteral drug delivery are a common source of pain and distress in humans, which in turn may limit patient compliance. Concerns on pain are related to needle insertion as well as the discomfort experienced from drug formulations. For patient comfort and adherence, it is critical to reduce injection pain.

High drug dosage (for example, therapeutic proteins) is required to obtain the therapeutic efficacy and administration frequency, and the drug formulations can be highly concentrated to reduce the injection volume. Observations in several studies showed that the formulation variables, for example, pH of the formulation, viscosity, salt concentration, and excipients may affect the discomfort from injection. On the other hand, injection volume, size of the needle, injection speed and angle of insertion also have a direct impact on the perceived pain or discomfort. The objective of this webinar is to educate the pharmaceutical industry about the use of Electromyogram (EMG) to assess and quantify discomfort by measuring muscle contraction evoked by the spinal reflexes in the animal.

This webinar will explore the optimization of critical factors (drug formulations and injection variables) in formulation development and device selection.

Presented by

Sagarika Bose, Ph.D.,

Sr. Manager, Technology Development

Dr. Sagarika Bose earned her Ph.D. in Pharmaceutical Science, specializing in novel polymer coating technologies and statistical data modelling and analysis from the University of Connecticut. She earned her Master's degree from Auburn University specializing in traditional and novel transdermal research.

She is working in Technology Development at Terumo Pharmaceutical Solutions for the past 4 years. She started her industrial career at Wyeth Pharmaceuticals, followed by Pfizer and Endo Pharmaceuticals. Prior to her career at Terumo, She held the position of Director, Product Development and CMC in Research and Development at Amarin Pharmaceuticals.

Holding 19 publications, presentations, review papers and patents, she recently wrote a book chapter on parenteral drug delivery for older patients for the publication, "Developing drug products in an aging society, from concept to prescribing" by Springer. She has been a reviewer for several pharmaceutical journals, including Pharmaceutical Research, European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, Journal of Controlled release, Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy, AAPS Pharm Sci Tech, Recent Patents in Drug Delivery and Formulation etc.

Key Learning Objectives

  • Critical factors that can contribute pain or discomfort to muscles
  • Measurement of discomfort by EMG
  • Measurement of discomfort using animal model and their muscle contraction


  • Scientist
  • Team Leaders in Pharmaceutical Development/CMC
  • Product Management
  • Marketing
  • Head of Device Development
  • Device Platform Management
  • Head of Drug Product Development
  • Head of Formulation Development
  • Operations